Anthropogenic impacts are influencing nature since ages, resulting in changing landscapes and inhabiting species. Due to that, there are still – but less – real natural landscapes and plenty of different cultural landscapes, which have evolved many associated species and communities.
The quantity of anthropogenic impacts has also caused a loss of species and habitats. Reducing or in the best case stopping that loss, is the aim of conservation biology. Handling these issues, is one of the objectives of conservation management. Factors influencing the persistence of wildlife are e.g. habitat loss in general, fragmentation, small or inappropriate habitats, prey availability, over-predation, population decline or increase, viability of small populations, inbreeding, hybridization, diseases, human related conflicts, over-harvesting or pests. Changes in habitat quality can result in an in- or decrease of species abundance or richness, which may have impact on other species abundance or richness.
Planning activities should be done with a careful eye on species communities and potential predator-prey interactions. Anthropogenic disturbances may induce self-enhancing changes in community structure and functions and therefore be considered in planning processes.